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TENSES for BEGINNERS

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Kamis, 20 Oktober 2011

TENSES for BEGINNERS

T E N S E S
I. PRESENT
   1. Simple Present Tense
    POLA:
Subject + Verb 1 + ….
They /   We
I   /   You
Subject + Verb s-es + ….    
He  /   She
 It
           
     FUNGSI:       
     a. Untuk menyatakan suatu kebiasaan (habitual action) atau kegiatan yang terjadi berulang – ulang dan terus menerus.
   Contoh :
* The students go to school everyday.
* She studies English twice a week.
* I go to church on Sundays
* We celebrate our independence day once in a year.
     b. Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (general truth).
         Contoh:
* The sun rises in the east and sets down in the west.
* The earth revolves round the sun.
* The pineapple never grows up on a tree.
      c. Digunakan dalam bahasa drama, komentar radio dan sejenisnya.
When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing on her desk. Suddenly the window opens and a masked man enters.

      KETERANGAN WAKTU:
  1. Every morning/day/week/month/year
  2. Once, twice, three times, four times, …
  3. Adverb of frequency : always, usually, sometimes, often, never, seldom.


    2. Present Continuous Tense
      POLA :
Subyek + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing
      FUNGSI;
  1. Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu diucapkan.
Contoh:
* They are still playing at the moment.
* She is reading a novel now.
  1. Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung tetapi belum tentu sedang berlangsung ketika pernyataan diucapkan.
Contoh:
*       I am learning French this year.
*       Mr. Brown is teaching English.
      KETERANGAN WAKTU:    Now, at the moment, this afternoon, this evening, right now, today.
      Note : Ketika ada kata kerja seperti: Look!, Listen!, Watch!, Notice! ( Imperative), maka tenses
                nya Present Continuous.
      Contoh:     *  Look! The man is climbing.
                 *  Listen! The girls next door are singing my favourite song.


3. Present Perfect Tense
    POLA:
Subject + Have  +  Verb 3 + ….
                 Has

    FUNGSI :
    a. Untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada waktu lampau dan waktunya tidak tertentu.
     Contoh :
*       William Shakespeare has written many short stories.
*       I have swept the floor. It looks clean now.

  1. Untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang pernah dilakukan dan mungkin dilakukan lagi di waktu yang akan datang.
Contoh:
*       My friends and I have gone to Bali.
*       Shinta has visited her grand parents many times.

      KETERANGAN WAKTU: Since, for, just (baru saja), already, yet, so far.


4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    POLA :
Subject + Have  + Been + Verb-ing
                 Has

    FUNGSI :
Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang mulai dilakukan pada waktu lampau dan sampai sekarang masih berlangsung.
Contoh:
*       My sister has been studying English for three months.
*       The students have been doing the test since 11 o’clock.

     KETERANGAN WAKTU: For, since.



5. Simple Past Tense
        POLA:
Subject + Verb 2 + Object + ….

       FUNGSI:
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
Contoh:
*       I met my music teacher yesterday.
*       My mother bought a new carpet last Sunday.
*       Rendy closed the window five minutes ago.
*       The students presented their project work this morning.

       KETERANGAN WAKTU:
-          Last ….                         -       …ago                                -       This afternoon
-          Just now            -       This morning                     -       Yesterday


6. Past Continuous Tense
         POLA:
Subject + was  + Verb- ing
                were

         FUNGSI:
  1. Untuk menggambarkan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau.
 Contoh:
*       I was studying at my friend’s house.
*       My parents were chatting in the living room.
  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau, dimana peristiwa lain juga terjadi .
Contoh:
*       When I was studying, someone knocked the door.
*       When I was walking to school, I met Dian sastro.

7.  Past Perfect tense
   POLA:
Subject + Had + Verb 3

     FUNGSI:
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi sebelum kegiatan lain di waktu lampau muncul.
Contoh:  
*       The teachers went home after they had finished teaching.
*       When I arrived Kridosono, my favourite artist had performed.

    KETERANGAN WAKTU: when, after, before.
8. Future Tense
       POLA:
Subject + shall  + Verb 1 + …
                will

       FUNGSI:
  1. Untuk menggambarkan suatu peristiwa yang akan terjadi.
Contoh:
*       Bobby will come here tomorrow.
*       I shall call my parents when I get home.

  1. Untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi di masa mendatang yangbukan merupakan keinginan atau kehendak.
Contoh:
*       Tomy will be fourteen years old next year.
*       We shall die one day.

      KETERANGAN WAKTU: Tomorrow, next week/month/year, the day after tomorrow.

Future Perfect Tense

I will have sung
The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. The future perfect tense talks about the past in the future.

How do we make the Future Perfect Tense?

The structure of the future perfect tense is:
subject
+
auxiliary verb WILL
+
auxiliary verb HAVE
+
main verb
 
invariable

invariable
 
past participle
will
have
V3
Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:

subject
auxiliary verb

auxiliary verb
main verb

+
I
will

have
finished
by 10am.
+
You
will

have
forgotten
me by then.
-
She
will
not
have
gone
to school.
-
We
will
not
have
left.

?
Will
you

have
arrived?

?
Will
they

have
received
it?
In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together:
I will have
I'll have
I'll've
you will have
you'll have
you'll've
he will have
she will have
it will have
he'll have
she'll have
it'll have
he'll've
she'll've
it'll've
we will have
we'll have
we'll've
they will have
they'll have
they'll've
 
We sometimes use shall instead of will, especially for I and we.

How do we use the Future Perfect Tense?

The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:
  • The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
The train will have left when you arrive.
past
present
future


Train leaves in future at 9am.
9

9.15

       



You arrive in future at 9.15am.
Look at some more examples:
  • You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.
  • They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.
  • "Mary won't be at home when you arrive."
    "Really? Where will she have gone?"
You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but instead of your viewpoint being in the present, it is in the future:
present perfect tense

future perfect tense

|
have |
done |
> |

 


will |
have |
done |
> |



past
now
future

past
now
future




Rounded Rectangle: SOAL-SOAL LATIHAN1. Every night, the guard turns on all the lights and …around the building every half an hour.
a. walks
b. is walking
c. walked
d. will walk

2. I … my holiday in Bali every year.
a. spent
b. spend
c. will spend
d. am spending

3. My friend … a lot of photographs when she went to Borodudur last month.
a. has taken
b. will take
c. takes
d. took

4. Four years ago, I … in Bojonegoro, East Java.
a. have lived
b. don’t live
c. lived
d. live

5. The students went to the zoo to learn Bilogy ….

a. every Sunday
b. next Sunday
c. last Sunday
d. on Sundays

6. Don’t make noise, please! The baby ….
a. slept
b. sleeps
c. has slept
d. is sleeping

7. I met my Elementary School teacher this morning when I ….
a. was waiting
b. am waiting
c. waited
d. wait

8. Bobby was studying Physics when suddenly someone … the door.
a. was knocking
b. had knocked
c. has knocked
d. knocked

9. Teacher : Wow! What a clean classroom it is.
      Katie     : Yes ma’am. My friend and I … it


a. sweep
b. swept
c. will sweep
d. have swept

10. Windi  : Look ! The flowers are  beautiful. Who … them?
      Lola    : I did, and I watered them regularly.
a. are planting
b. planted
c. plants
d. plant

11. Novi :“Where did you get the CONTACT magazine?
        Jaka  : “ I … it from the library last week. I want to return it now, I … it.
a. borrowed -  read
b. lent – have read
c. read – have borrowed
d. borrowed – have read

12. Dita  : “What are you going to do after graduating from Junior High School?”
    Andi : “ I … my study in vocational school”
a. continue
b. continued
c. will continue
d. have continue

13. Lina  : You look so pale, Han!
      Hani : Really? I … a rest yet all day long.
a. will not                      
b. didn’t take               
c. have taken
d. haven’t taken

14. Rico : Hey, listen! The girls next door …our favourite song.
a. sing                            
b. sings                          
c. will sing
       d. are singing

15. ‘I know that one of my students … in a big company since he graduated.’
a. works        
b. will be working
c. is working 
d. has been working

16.   Andi  : Thom, What were you doing when the
                    earthquake happened?
        Thom : I … soundly.
a.       sleep
b.       slept
c.        was sleeping
d.       had studied

17.   Meta  :  What’s your plan for the coming holiday?
        Reza  :   I … my grandmother in Bandung.       
a.       visit
b.       will visit
c.        am visiting
d.       will be visited

18.     Ihsan        : Have you ever been to Bali?
Disit        :   Yes, I have
Ihsan      :   When … ?
Didit       :   Last year.
a.       will you go there              
b.       have you go there
c.        did you go there
d.       are you going there

       Ina   :   Wow, this floor is so clean.
        Ria   :  Thanks.  My servant (19) … it
        Ina   :   How many times does she (20)… it?
        Ria   :   Twice a day.

19.  a. sweep    b. swept       c. will sweep    d. has swept
20.  a. sweep   b. sweeps      c. sweeping     d. has swept






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