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Rabu, 23 November 2011


An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun.

A noun may have many attributes.

Boy is a noun.

That boy may be tall or short, intelligent or fool, educated or uneducated, rich or poor.

What is the quality of that boy?

In order to express the quality of that boy, we have to use an adjective.

"That boy is a rich boy".

In this sentence, the word “rich” indicates that the boy is a rich boy.

That means that the boy has a lot of money.

Those words which tell us about the quality of the nouns (which might have been used either as the subject or the object) are called adjectives.

America is a country.
America is a rich country. (“rich” is an adjective)

Nile is a river.
Nile is a long river.(“long” is an adjective)

Harvard is the name of a university.
Harvard is the name of the oldest university. (“Oldest” is an adjective)

She is a student.
She is a beautiful student. (“Beautiful” is an adjective)

Water is an element.
Water is one of the essential elements. (“essential” is an adjective)

Other sentences written with adjectives:

  • London is a large city.
  • Jacob is an honest man.
  • We have had enough exercises.
  • There has not been sufficient rain this year.
  • The hand has five fingers.
  • Most boys like cricket.
  • I met a beautiful lady.
  • The clever boy is rewarded.
  • The beautiful painting is bought.
  • The Indian goods have great demand in USA.
  • The red car is preferred by all.
  • The tall professor is on leave today.
  • The idle servant was dismissed.
  • He is an honest man.
  • He is a mere child.
  • It is sheer nonsense.
  • He reads good books.
  • This park is clean.
  • Vishal became rich.
  • He seems hungry.
  • An adjective will come before a noun.
    It will not come before a verb.

    A Word A Year

    A Word A Year : Choosing a word or phrase that sums up a particular year is a complicated task: some would say impossible.

    What seems crucial to some will have passed others by while the choice of a word which was prominent in an area of popular culture may seem flippant to those seeking something more momentous.

    As a short-hand summary of a period in time, however, a word which came to prominence is hard to beat. It scarcely matters if that word proved ephemeral or if it arose out of an activity of little political or sociological importance. The very fact that it became high-profile can shed as much light on the preoccupations of its time as any photograph or historical summary. Be it the garden town of 1915 or Big Brother in 1949 (of the literary rather than the TV kind, although one could make a strong argument for its inclusion as a word of the 2000s). The following choices of a single word for each year in the last century are surprising and revealing.

    If the journey from permanent wave (1909) to liposuction (1983) and Charleston (1923) to Britpop (1986) seems a long one, the move from power politics (1933) to off-message (1992) and from superstar (1925) to bling (2000) seems the shortest of steps. Today's pizzas, ganglands and fat cats, meanwhile, made their linguistic mark long ago.

    1906 : muckraking

    1907 : cat burglar

    1908 : Rolls Royce

    1909 : permanent wave

    1910 : double jeopardy

    1911 : phone number

    1912 : vitamin

    1913 : migrant labour

    1914 : war zone

    1915 : garden town

    1916 : blood group

    1917 : camouflage

    1918 : multinational

    1919 : peace rally

    1920 : T-shirt

    1921 : potato crisps

    1922 : class divisions

    1923 : Charleston

    1924 : gangland

    1925 : superstar

    1926 : fridge: refrigerator dates from 1824.

    1927 : non-stick

    1928 : fat cats: first used to describe political backers.

    1929 : fuzz: as slang for a policeman or detective. The origin, alas, is uncertain.

    1930 : genome

    1931 : gossip-writer

    1932 : seat belt

    1933 : power politics

    1934 : Gestapo

    1935 : pizza

    1936 : male chauvinism

    1937 : hobbit: the term, coined by J. R. R. Tolkien to describe the imaginary tiny people of his stories, means 'hole-dweller'.

    1938 : tween-age

    1939 : atom-splitting

    1940 : Mae West

    1941 : hi-de-hi: an exclamation, used chiefly by army instructors to greet, or attract the attention of, their troops. It later became associated with greeters at holiday camps thanks to a British sitcom of the same name.

    1942 : news conference

    1943 : passion killers: unattractive underwear which was standard issue in wartime. The modern equivalent might be the big knickers much discussed in Helen Fielding's Bridget Jones's Diary.

    1944 : DNA: the American Oswald Avery proved that DNA carries genetic information and laid the path for the later description of 'deoxyribonucleic acid' by James Watson and Francis Crick.

    1945 : bebop: a development of jazz, begun in the US at the end of the Second World War, and characterized by complex harmony, dissonant chords, and a highly syncopated rhythm.

    1946 : garden gnome

    1947 : bikini: originally the name of an atoll in the Marshall Islands where an atomic bomb test was carried out in July 1946. The beach garment was so called because of its perceived explosive effect.

    1948 : TV

    1949 : Big Brother: the name of the head of state in George Orwell's novel 1984.

    1950 : big bang: a great or loud explosion; specifically, the explosion of a single compact mass in which, according to one cosmological theory, the universe originated. The term was coined by Sir Fred Hoyle who challenged the belief.

    1951 : Scrabble

    1952 : Generation X: a generation of young people about whose future there is uncertainty; a lost generation. The term was later popularized by Douglas Coupland's 1991 novel of the same name.

    1953 : teleconference

    1954 : Palooka Ville: an imaginary town characterized by mediocrity, stupidity, or failure. The term 'palooka' denoted (as it does today) a stupid, clumsy, or uncouth person, and was popularized by the US comic-strip character Joe Palooka, a well-meaning but clumsy prizefighter.

    1955 : Rastafarian

    1956 : 1984

    1957 : Mr. Nice Guy: the OED's first example is a description of the singer Perry Como. Later, the phrase 'No more Mr. Nice Guy' became more popular.

    1958 : film noir

    1959 : hair spray

    1960 : pirate radio

    1961 : downshifting

    1962 : drinks party

    1963 : Dalek: a type of cyborg which appeared in Doctor Who, the science-fiction TV series.

    1964 : vox pop

    1965 : garden centre

    1966 : tower block

    1967 : football hooligan

    1968 : reggae

    1969 : microchip

    1970 : Big Mac

    1971 : breakfast television

    1972 : Watergate

    1973 : F-word

    1974 : shuttle diplomacy: diplomatic activity by a mediator travelling between disputing parties. The term was particularly associated with Henry Kissinger's efforts in the Middle East. In 2003 Tony Blair talked of his own 'mobile phone diplomacy' in the build-up to war in Iraq.

    1975 : Page Three girl 1976 : PIN number

    1977 : bottle bank

    1978 : satellite dish

    1979 : karaoke

    1980 : nip and tuck: minor cosmetic surgery, performed especially for tightening the skin.

    1981 : Stepford: the name of the fictional American suburb in Ira Levin's 1972 novel The Stepford Wives, in which the men have replaced their wives with robots. 1981 marks the point at which Stepford began to mean lacking in individuality, emotion, or thought.

    1982 : Kissogram

    1983 : liposuction

    1984 : shopaholic

    1985 : full monty

    1986 : Britpop

    1987 : to email

    1988 : roller blading

    1989 : doughnut ting: the clustering of politicians round a speaker during a televised parliamentary debate, especially in order to give the impression that the speaker is well supported or to conceal low attendance.

    1990 twocker: a car thief, especially one who steals for the purpose of joyriding. Twoc is an acronym for 'taken without owner's consent'.

    1991 : ethnic cleansing

    1992 : off-message

    1993 : DVD

    1994 : metro sexual

    1995 : chuddies: underpants. The word, from Hindi, was popularized by the TV comedy series Goodness Gracious Me and its catchphrase insult kiss my chuddies.

    1996 : Viagra

    1997 : WAP: abbreviation for 'wireless application protocol', a specification which supports the transfer of data (especially for Internet access, including text and images) to and from a hand-held wireless device such as a mobile phone.

    1998 : to Google

    1999 : blogger

    2000 : bling

    2001 : 9/11

    2002 : metatarsal: any of five bones in the foot between the ankles and the toes. The term came into general use when the England football captain David Beckham broke one in his left foot just before the World Cup in Japan. In 2006 it was Wayne Rooney's metatarsal fracture which dominated the headlines.

    2003 : to sex something up

    2004 : chav

    2005 : biosecurity

    2006 : bovvered

    2007 : locavore

    2008 : Hypermiling