:
Infinitive and Gerund

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Senin, 17 Oktober 2011

Infinitive and Gerund


Infinitive

Use

Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.
Use and Word ListsExample
as the subject of a clauseTo know you is to love you.
after certain expressions (without ‘to’)Why not go to the cinema?
after certain verbs (without ‘to’)can swim.
after certain verbs (with ‘to’)He wants to swim.
after certain verbs with interrogatives (infinitive constructions)They don’t know how to swim.
after certain verbs with objects (without ‘to’)He made her swim.
after certain verbs with objects (with ‘to’)They wanted him to swim.
after certain adjectives and their comparisonsIt’s easier to swim downstream.
after nouns deriving from the verbs mentioned aboveWe made a promise to swim. (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)

Gerund

Form

ing form of the verb

Exceptions in Spelling

Use

Certain words are followed by an Ing-Form.
Use and Word ListsExample
as the subject of a clauseCycling is good for your health.
after certain adjectivesHe’s afraid of going by plane.
after certain prepositionsBefore going to bed he turned off the lights.
after certain verbsenjoy cooking.
after certain verbs with prepositionsI am looking forward to seeing you again.
after certain nounsWe had problems finding our way back home.

Words followed either by Infinitive or Ing-Form

Use and Word ListsExample
same meaningI started to read. / I started reading.
same meaning but different useShe forbids us to talk. / She forbids talking.
different meaningHe stopped to smoke. / He stopped smoking.
infinitive or present participleI saw him go up the stairs. / I saw him going up the stairs.


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